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THE 

STATISTICAL BREVIARY; 

SHEWING, 

4 

ON A PRINCIPLE ENTIRELY NEW, 

THE RESOURCES 

OF EVERY 

STATE AND KINGDOM IN EUROPE; 

ILLUSTRATED WITH 

STAINED COPPER.PLATE CHARTS, 

BEPRESENTIKO THE 

PHYSICAL POWERS OF EACH DISTINCT NATION 
WITH EASE AND PERSPICUITY. 

By WILLIAM PLAYFAIR. 

TO WHICH IS ADDEOy 

A SIMILAR EXHIBITION OF THE RULING POWERS 
OF HINDOOSTAN. XvVH^ 




LONDON; 

Printed by T, B i n s l i y, Bolt Court| Fleet Strtet^ "^ * 

For J. Wallis, 46, Paternoster Row j Carpbnter and Co. Bond 
Street} Eg er ton, Whitehall ; Verkor and Hoon, Poultry; Black 
and Parry, Leadenhall Street ; and Ti bb et and Dxdxeb, St. James's 
Street. 



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PREFACE. 



Having about a year ago been rcquefted by the Eng- 
lUh editor of Mr. Boetticher's Statiftical Tables, to con- 
fider of fome method of bringing them down to that 
period, without injuring the original work, I propofed 
to ma^e a fufflementary table, comprehending all the 
countries which have undergone any material change 
fincc the publication of the book. I then undertook to 
make out fuch a fupplementary table ; which I did, and it 
js publiihed at the end of that work. 

In the courfe of executing that defign, it occurred to 
jne, that tables are by no means a good form for con- 
veying fuch information, unlefs where a number of 4if- 
Jfereint countries are intended to be exhibited at once. 
Where there is only one to be fet forth, I can fee no 
kind of advantage in that fort of reprefentation, while the 
inconveniency of a large fize, in a book that is intended 
Xo be frequently referred to, is obvious. 

A 2 Ido 



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4 FREPAC fi. 

I do not conceive that it is in any manner the province 
of ftatiftical works to contain hiftorical relation, or any 
thing that is not a iimple h&y and relative to one fingle 
epoch or date. The numbers of people, quantity of 
ground, revenues, prices of labour, &c. as flmple and 
ufeful £i£b, belong to (btiftics ; but the defcription of 
the order of the garter, or of the golden fleece, has 
nothing to do with it. To encumber ftatiftical reports 
with fuch information appears to me to be ill placed, and 
as fuch improper. 

I have compofed the following work upon the prin- 
ciple of which I fpeak ; this, however, I never ftiould have 
thought of doing, had it not occurred to me, that mak- 
ing an appeal to the eye when proportion and magni- 
tude are concerned, is the beft and readieft method of 
conveying a diftind idea. 

Statiftical knowledge, though in fome degree fearched 
after in the moft early ages of the world, has not, till 
within thefe laft fifty years, become a regular objed of 
ftudy. Its utility to all perfons conne£ted in any way with 
public affairs, is evident : and indeed it is no le& evident 
that every one who afpires at the chara£ker of a well-in- 
formed man ftiould acquire a certain degree of know- 
ledge on a fubje£t fo univerfally important, and fo gene- 
rally canvafled. 
^^ Geographical knowledge has long been conftdered as 
^L neceflary 



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PRBFACB. 5 

neceflary for perfons of both (exes who wiih to acquire 
any tolerable degree of general information ; in fo much 
^at, next to ignorance of the grammar of one's native 
language, nothing betrays want of information fo foon ai 
Ignorance in matters of geography, without which it is 
almoft impoffible to carry on converfation long on any 
general fubje6t. 

Geography is, however, only a branch of ftatiftics, 
a knowledge of which is neceflary to the well under- 
ftanding of the hiftory of nations, as well as their £tua- 
tions relatively to each other. In ancient hiftory, and 
even down to our own times, there is nothing fo imper* 
ftSt as the accounts given of flatiftical matters. Ancient 
hiftorians, and other writers, tell us for example, of 
great armies raifed and great achievements performed; 
but concerning the finances, and ways and means, they 
are generally filent. To the importance of this fpecies 
of knowledge, mankind have only of late years begun to 
pay a fufficient degree of attention, the want of which, 
hitherto, leaves us now in great ignorance on many 
points which it would be very ufefiil for us to know, in 
order to form a comparifon between the ancient ftate of 
the world and its prefent fituation. 

Statiftical accounts are to be referred to as a didlionary 

by men of riper years, and by young men as a grammar, 

to teach them the relations and proportions of different 

A 3 ftatiftical 



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6 P R £ F A e E. 

ftatiftical fubjeds, and to imprint them on the mind at 
a time when the memory is capable of being imprefied in< 
at lading and durable manner,. thereby laying the founda** 
tion for accurate and valuable knowledge. 

Since the ralueof this ftudy is generally acknowledged, 
it has become a defirable thing to render it as eafy 
and perfe£l as may be. In the introdu£tion reafons 
are given for adopting the mode of reprefenting the 
magnitude of different countries by proportional circles, 
but the great tell of its utility is in the mind of the per- 
fon who takes up the charts. The firft of thefe has been 
fhewn to numbers of pcrfons, all of whom have declared 
that till they faw it, they had no right and diftinfb idea 
of the proportional extent of the diflFerent countries fuch 
as it gave them. Tlie reafon of this is evident : for, as it 
is not without fome pains and labour that the memory 
is iraprefled with the proportion between different quan- 
tities exprefled in words or figures, many perfons never 
take that trouble ;— and there is even, to thofe that do fo,. 
a frefh effort of memory neceffary each time the queftion 
occurs. It is different with a chart, as the eye cannot 
look on fimilar forms without involuntarily as it were com- 
paring their magnitudes. So that what in the ufual mode 
was attended with fome difficulty, becomes not only eafy, 
but as it were unavoidable. 

Whatever prefcnts itfclf quickly and clearly to the 
6 mind. 



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PREFACE. 7 

mihd, fets it to work, to reafon^ and think ; whereas, it 
often happens, that in learning a number of detached 
fadlsy the mind is merely paffive, and makes no effort 
further than an attempt to retain fuch knowledge. 

It would be almoft impoflible for any perfon of intel-^ 
ligence to contemplate the firft chart without being 
ftruck with the great fize of Ruffia and Turkey, and the 
comparatively fmall extent of thofe countries which have 
borne the principal fway io the world for thefe laft five 
hundred years, whilft Rui&a was nearly unknown, and 
counted but as duft in the political balance of nations. 
Some general conclufions, accompanied with no fmall 
degree of furprife, naturally attend the firft view of this 
proportional chart of nations. 

What thinking man who confiders the important part 
that the fmall republic of Holland has aded, while Russia 
lay as if congealed in an eternal winter, but will con- 
clude, that if ever the people in thofe different countries 
come to be in any degree fimilar in civilization and 
intelligence, the importance of the fmaller muft fink 
into great inferiority, and in general, that if even the 
different countries in the world ihould come to be nearly 
upon a par in refpefk of arts, <:iviltzation and knowledge, 
the fcale of their importance muft be ftrangely altered, 
and accordingly it is daily altering : for, as commerce, 
arts, and civilization, have been making great progrefs 

A 4 during 



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8 PREFACE. 

during th6 hft century, the foundation of changes hss 
been folidly hid, afhd thejr have begun to take place wkhr 
unexampled rapidity. 

Holland, which was a preponderating power in the 
beginning, and during a great part of the laft century, 
as it had long before been, entered into the laft war 
fhorn of its imfportance, with the rank of only ah 
auxiliary t6 France and Spain. It did not long prefer^e 
even that dimimfflied rank; for having firft fabmitted to 
be the tool of a French fadion, it was in the courfe of 
a few &kyz reduced to obe£ence by the King of Pruffia, 
who aded with it jufft as he would have done with a re- 
bellious province of his own dominions ; aiid when the 
prefent war broke out, it foon was reduced to what 
impartial truth obliges us to call a depenfdarit province 
of France. 

Portugal, now fo different from what it was in the 
time when its conqliefts almoft encircled, and did aftoniih 
the world, feems to run a rifque of iharing the fate of 
HoUand. 

Though extent of territory is the ground work of 
powo", as it regulates in a great degree the population of 
a country ; yet we find neither extent nor population 
will do without Tevenue : hence we find Poland extenfive, 
popuknis, rich in foil, and produdive, peopled with a 
race much more zealous of liberty than any of the neigh- 
7 bouring 



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PREFACE. 9 

bouring kingdoms, faJten a prey to the power of thofe 
very neighbours. The condufion is, tliot want of re- 
venue was ihe caufe of its ruin*. 

To render ftatiftical aecouhfe acairate and complete, 
it is not fufficient that individuals ihould coUe€t know- 
ledge, and arrange it in order, fer the aid of rulers and 
^^gidrates. An habitual and regular pra£kice of collcd- 
ing information, both generally and locally, is necellary ; 
but as vanity Is not flattered by employing men to coU 
le& fuch materials, as it does not invmediately advance 
the interefts of thofe who are at the head of afiairs, it is 
to be feared that the buiinefs will long be left to the in- 
a^qoate care of a few individuals. 

Where vanity is not gratified, or intcreft promoted^ 
knowledge is generally neglefked. The bufliels of rings 
taken from the fingers of the flmn at the battle of Cannae, 
above two thoufand years ago, are recorded : fo are the 
numbers of combatants at the battles of Agincdurt and 
Crcfly ; but the buihels of corn produced in England at 
this day, or the number of the inhabitants of the country f, 
are unknown, at the very time that we are debating that 

oioft 

* Perhaps it will be urged that vraot of unanimity, not want of revenue, 
ruined Poland ; but in anfwer to this, it may be urged> that want i^ revenue 
occafions want of unanimity as well as many other wants. 

f Some efforts hsnre been lately made to afcertain the population of this 
country, which are endrely inadequate to the purpofe, and are therefore to 
be confidered as nolhioga 



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lO F & £ F A C B. 

moft important queftion, whetheror not there isfaflident 
fubiifteoce for tbofe who live within the kingdom. We 
neither know whether the country is incrcaGng or di- 
miniflung in population : we are equally ignorant as to 
its produce, and yet, perhaps, no nation in Europe b 
better informed on thoie important fubje^b th»i our- 
felvcs. No encouragement is given, no proper fteps are 
taken by thofe who rule, to afcertain points that are fo 
material, while there are Societies inftituted for inquiry 
into matters which are pad and gone, rare and ufelefs, 
or diftant and unknown. 

Were the aid and fupport of public men obtained in 
colleding (latiftical knowledge, great progrefs might be 
made in it at little expence, and with great facility ; but 
fo long as that is not the cafe, individuals will find them- 
ielves reduced to the fituation of fcanty gleaners, not 
that of men carrying home an ample harveft. 

Statefmen, and thofe in power, would in the end find 
themfelves amply repaid for any trouble, or moderate de* 
gree of expence, that an attention to ftatiftics might oc<> 
cafion } for by that means the operations of government 
(particularly the revenue department*) would be greatly 

faci- 



• In the revenue deparcment much accuracy and great attention prevails 
throughout $ but all other national operations are done in a florenly Inac- 
curate manner, at if revenue alone were worth attending to : it is not fo in 
many coyntries that are in other refpe^s much worfe regulated than this. 



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PREFACE. II 

fiiciliuted. Great ftatefmen and monarchs have known 
this in all ages; from whence attempts have arifen to 
number the people, and take an accoant of property, &c* 

As flatifiical refults never can be made out with mi- 
nute accuracy, and that, if they were, it would add little 
to their utility, from the changes that are per()etually 
taking place ; it has been thought proper in this work 
to omit that cuftomary oftentation of inferting what may 
be termed fraSional parts, in calculating great numbers, 
as they only confufe the mind and are in themfelves an 
abfurdity. 

Statiftical books, like di£tionaries, require new editions 
from time to time, as changes take place among nations ; 
but it is impoffible to begin a regular feries of fuch ac- 
counts from any period fo proper as that juft previous to 
the prefent war. Europe had been almod ftationary for 
a century, when all at once changes commenced, which, 
from their nature, their caufes, and the general (ituation 
of things, will not foonbe ended in a folid manner. The 
firft view of European nations is the foundation from 
which we rife, with an intention to exhibit in a like man- 
ner the fame nations under the different viciiBtudes which 
the prefent troubles have occafioned, or in future may 
occafion. 



ADVER- 



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f 12 ] 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

Ik the obfervations made relative to the utility and fit- 
ne& of large tables for conveying ftatiftical information » 
no idea was entertained of objecting to the merit of 
M. Boetticher's work ; but from infpefting thofe tables 
themfelvesy it will appear, that except in regard to Ger- 
many, which is divided into a great number of govern- 
ments, in the Vlth table, where eight ftates are repre- 
fented at once, and in the laft fupplementary table, 
where eleven different nations are contained, there is 
more inconv6niehcy than advantage arises from the form 
adopted. 

With refpeft to throwing afide the units, tens, and 
hundreds, in great numbers, it is done under this fimple 
impreffion, that as the information does fcarcely ever 
come within a thoufand of the truth, it ts an afieflatioh 
of accur^y beyond what has really be6n attained ; or, to 
to make a fair com|>afifon, it is like a hiflorian giving as 
truth, an account of the private minutiae of courts and 
embaifies, which were known only to the parties 
themfelves, and though reported publicly never believed. 
No fort of reflddion is hojwever meant on thofe who 
think fit to give their flatements in the other way, 
although the number of figures certainly cmbarrafles the 
memory without anfwering any good purpofe. 



INTRO- 



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[ 13 ] 



INTRODUCTION and EXPLANATION 



OF THB 



STATISTICAL CHARTS. 



Each circular figure reprefents that country, the name 
of which is engraved under it, and all are arranged in 
order according to their extent. 

The lines ftained red that rife on the left of each coun- 
try, exprefs the number of inhabitants in millions, Riea* 
fured upon the divided fcale which ext(?nds from right to 
left of each divifion, each of whici) is one million, as 
marked at both ends. 

' The yellow lines on the right of each nation repre- 
fent the revenue in millions of pounds fterling, mea- 
fured alfo upon the fame. divided fcale with the popula- 
tion. 

The countries ftained green are maritime powers 5 thofc 
ftained of a pale red are only powerful by land. 

The figures marked diredlly above the circles (as 5 over 
Ruffia, and 14 over Sweden) indicate the number of 
perfons living qn each fquare mile of country. 

The figures within the circles fliew the number of 
fqufire miles in the countries they reprefent. 

The dotted lines drawn between the population and 
revenue, are merely intended to conneft together the lines 

b^onging 



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14 INTRODUCTION AND EXPLANATION 

belonging to the fame country. The afcent of thofe 
lines being from right to left, or from left to right, (hews 
whether in proportion to its population the country is 
burdened with heavy taxes or otherwife. 

Chart ift. Exhibits the powers of Europe as they 
were previous to the French Revolution. ^ 

Chart 2d. The nations of Europe, as intended by 
the peace (igned at Luneville, which fo materially alters 
the nature of affairs, and the extent of France and Ger- 
many^ 

Chart 3d. Reprefents the population of the grea^ 
capital cities of Europe, the circles being proportioned to 
the number of inhabitants in each. 

Chart 4th. Reprefents the powers of Hindooftan, 
that are conneAed with, or influence European afl&irs in 
the eaft, in the fame manner that the European powers 
themfelvefi are exhibited to vieyv. 

The advantages propofed by this mode of reprefenta* 
tion, are to facilitate the attainment of information, and 
aid the memory in retaining it : which two points form 
the principal bufinefs in what we call learning, or the ac- 
quifition of knowledge. 

Of all the fenfes, the eye gives the livelieft and mofr 
accurate idea of whatever is fufccptlble of being repre- 
fented to it ; and when proportion between different quan- 
jties is the objefl, then the eye has an incalculable fupe* 
riority ; as from the conftant, and even involuntary habit 
of comparing the fizes of objefts it has acquired the ca- 
pacity of doing fo, with an accuracy that is almoft un- 
equalled. 
• The 



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OF THE STATISTICAL CHARTS. I5 

The ftudy of chronology has been much facilitated by 
making fpace reprefent time, and a line of a proportional 
length, and in a fuitable poiition, the life of a man, by 
means of which the remarkable men of pad ages appear 
as it were before us in their proper time and place. 

The author of this work applied the ufe of lines to 
matters of commerce and finance about fifteen years ago, 
with great fuccefs ♦. His mode was generally approved 
of as not only facilitating, but rendering thofe (ludies 
more clear, and retained more eafily by the memory. 

The prefent charts are in like manner intended to aid 
Aatiftical ftudies, by (hewing to the eye the fiz^s of differ- 
ent countries reprefented by fimilar forms, for where 
forms are not fimilar, the eye cannot compare them eafily 
nor accurately. From this circumftance it happens, 
that we have a more accurate idea of the fizes of the 
planets, which are fpheres, than of the nations of Europe 
which we fee on the maps, all of which are irregular 
forms in themfeives as well as unlike to each other. 

Size, Population, and Revenue, are the three 
principal objedis of attention upon the general fcale of 
flatifiical ftudies, whether we are a£tuated by curiofity 
or intereft ; I have therefore reprefented thefe three ob- 
je6ts in one view, as they are the only effential founda- 
tions for power that can be accurately meafured or laid 
down with mathematical precifioii. Forms of govern- 

• In the Political and Commercial Atlas, delineating the progrefs of the 
commerce and revenues of this country during thelaft century. That work 
was tranflated into French and publifhed in Paris in 1788, when it met with 
^reat approbation. A new edition up to the prefent time is juft publiihed, 
of a fise to bind up with this« 

ment 



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|6 IKT9.09(^eTION» tiJCfi. 

menty and the meial qualities of men, go a great way ift . 
conftituting the ftrength of nations ; but thofe can only 
be deicribed to the mind, they cannot be r^refented, nor 
indjsed are they even fufceptible of accurate defcription. 

To conclude, the ift chart fhews the different powers 
of Europe at one view ; by which the mind may con- 
ceive, and the memory retain, a diftin£t idea of their pro.- 
portional extent, population, and public revenues. As 
for the details of each individual nation, they are fimple, 
not comparative fa£ts, and are to be found in the printed 
table dedicated to that particular country. 

Thofe who will take the trouble to read the preface, 
will find in it fome other remarks on this new mode, 
which may deferve their attention ; but, as already 
obferved in that preface, the great criterion is the eSetk 
produced on the mind of a man, when it has for a few 
minutes contemplated one of thefe charts for the fird 
time. 

It is prefumed that to ftudents this work will be parr 
ticularly ufeful : for no ftudy is lefs alluring or more dry 
and tedious than flatiftics, unlefs the mind and imagina- 
tion are fet to work, or that the perfon ftudying is parti- 
cularly interefted in the fubjedt ; which lall can feldom 
be the cafe with young men in any rank of life. 

N. B. Should future changes require a new chart, it 
will be publiflied of a fize proper to bind up with this 
work, and will be fold, to thofe who have a copy of it, 
at half the price charged to the public. 



STATIS- 



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STATISTICAL ACCOUNT, &c. 



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L .8 ] 
THE EMPIRE OF ALL THE RUSSIAS. 



This Empire is the mod cxtenfivc of any in exift- 
ence, or that ever did exift, being confiderably larger 
than the Roman Empire at the period of its greatcft 
magnitude ; it alfo exceeds in fixe the whole of Eurppe* 

h was only fo late as 1613 that Michael Romtn^4>Wy 
fon of a metropolitan, laid the foundation of the great- 
nefs of Ruffia, and by becoming czar, ellablifhea the 
prefent family on the throne. Peter the Great added 
Siberia to his Empire, and by a judicious line of con* 
du£t, and a life of great a£lion», firft raifed this huge, 
and then inanimated mafs, to confideration in Europe. 
That celebrated monarch poflelTed many rare qualities in 
an eminent degree. Manly virtues, wife views, and great- 
nefs of mind, fuch as few princes ever pofTeiTed, were 
2(11 dire£ted in him to the civilization of bis country and 
the improvement of his people. After the demife of 
this great man in 1725, no fewer than ilx fovereigns 
in the fpace of thirty-feven years afcended the throne. 
In 1762, Catharine II. on the death of her hufband, 
aflumed the reins of government, and proved an able 
ruler; underheradminiftration Ruffia increafed in wealth, 
commerce, and power. Her fucccflbr, Paul I. who only 
reigned from 1796 to i?oi, had not time to fhew in what 
manner be would have governed. His fon, Alexander I. 
who has juft mounted the throne, promiles fair to govern 
well. 1 he government is abfolute monarchy. 

No country ever rofe more rapidly into political im-^ 
portance than Ruffia, which is now a firft-rate power, 
whilft the career of its internal profperity is more rapid 
than ever. Were it only peopled as Sweden or Denmark, 
it would contain above feventy millions of inhabitants, 
and enjoy a proportional revenue ! ! 



Extent 



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EMPIRE OF ALL THE RtJSSIAS* I9 



Extent in fquare miles 4,65o,o^O 

Number of inhabitants * , , . , 25,0 0,060 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile ^ 

Extent in Englifli acres 3,000,000,000 * 

Number of acres to one perfon ♦ * 1 20 

Revenue in pounds fterling * • . 4 7,300,000 

Public debt * * . * io,coo,ooo 

Land forces in time of peace 4 . . 380,000 

Ditto, in time of war • * 530,000- 

Seamen in timeof peace 20,000 

Ditto, in time of war 40,000 

Ships of the line • 60 

Frigates, floops, &c ; .60 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 1,70,000 

Number of cultivated acres, about 150,000,000 

Number of pariihes, (i46,®oo clergy,) •*..».• 18,319- 

Exports to England, average • . 1,500,000 

Imports from England, average ; . • . . 550,000 

' Great divifions of the country, 44 diftin£l govern* 

ments, ^o in Europe, 14 in Ada. 
Chief towns, Peterfburgh 170,000, Mafcow 250,000, 

Aftracan 70,000, Cronftadt 60,000, perfons. 
Longitude of central point of the country, 92^ call. 
Latitude of ditto, 60^ north. 
Longitude of the capital 30^ 19' eaft» 
Latitude of ditto 59° 56' north. 
Religion, Greek Catholic Church, of which the Em- 

percH- is chief ; other religions tolerated. 
Amount of taxes on each individual 6s. 8d. 
Intercft of money 8 per cent. ' ■ 

> 

Ruffia, from its extent and the confequeni variety of 
foil and climate, produces a great number of articles for ex-' 
portattcn ; of which,tron, hemp, flax, timber, grain, cattle, 
and &ins, are the principal, its imports are not necef- 
iaries, but chiefly luxuries. The exports-iiUrreafe with 
the induftry of the country, and the imports as it grows 
more poliflied. 

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£ 20 ] 

THE TURKISH EMPIRE. 



The fineft portion of the Worlcl i% in pofleffion of the 
Tucks, iince the year looo. The goverfKnent is def- 
podc, with power over both the perfons and property of 
the fubjed. There is a great difference between a def« 
potrc gorernment ia a. Mahomedan and in » Chriftian 
ooontry,-*-in the former, it is not retrained by the tenets 
of religion.; whereas, we )rave no inftance ofanyChrtf- 
tian king being guilty of fuch.aifts of violence aa are every 
day praSifed at the courts, of Mahomedan princes. 

This great Empire, next in magnitude to that of 
Ruifia, and about equal to it in population and revenue* 
Ins undergone manv. revolutions, and is confidered as oa 
the decline for this.Iaft century. Certain it is, that it haft 
k>ft( much of the energy it has on former occafions dif- 
playe^ ; but that does not always mark decay in countries 
lb goTjcmed, where the.chara£ker and talents of thofe who 
vole at the time, have a [preponderating kiflilence oa 
public affairs* 

The hiftory of the Turkifli Empire is too full of 
events to admit 6f any thing like an abridgment here ; 
but the Turks formerly made a tolerable equally-poifed 
rivalfliip with the Germans by land, and with the Ve- 
netians by fea. So late as 1789, Rufiia and the Emperor 
united, were both kept at bay by Turkey, and one 
campaign was very brilliant ; neverthelefs,. nothing has 
been more fceUetnan the eiSbrts made by that power to 
co-operate with this country in Egypt, or to fubdue 
Pafliwan Oglu. Caprice, or fome caufe, the real nature 
of which is little known, feems ta produce alternate fits^ 
of exertion and of inadivity. 

The great aggrandiferoent and progreifive improvement 
of the Ruffian Empire, is indeed a dangerous circuni- 
ftanee for Tuekey ; but perhaps other European powers, 
are not quite h loft to all juftice and to their own in- 
tireils^ as to look on with uidifference at the ruin of 6> 
great ao Empise. 

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THB TURKISH BMPIRE. 2t 



K^tent in (qoane miles .•••.....«%« 790,000 

Isfumber of inhabitants « • , 24,000,00^ 

Number of perfons to a fquare intie 31 

Extent in Englifli acres 505,6oo>ooo 

Numberof acres of land to one perfon ••..,. 31 

Revenue in pounds fteiling y^ooOyCOO 

Amount of public debt, none - 

Land forces in time of peace . « %...«. ^ 250^000 

Ditto, in tim^ of war *....%.«.*. 370^000 

Seamen in time of peace • .«.. •••... 3O4OOQ 

Ditto, in time of war ^ 5S><^0 

Ships of the line •«•« •« .t.**.,..^ 40 

Frigates^ (loops, &c — sofngates, 4"^ galiies, lOO gaiMwi^ 

in ail «..••». ^ ....>.•«., . 160 

Leagues of fea coaft , . « 4 « 2,31b 

Number of inhabitants in the capital ....«..« ^oo.ood 

Number of cuhivat^ acres, about • « iaS,ocx>,ooO 

Exports to England on an average of 10 years . • 260^000 

Imports from England, ditto* • » • « « . . 280,009 

Great dividons of the oauntry, Europe, Afia, Afriea^ « « ^ 
Smalkr-£virions,beiide8 the Greek ifiands,pra(vinces * .ftB 
Chief towns^ Con(bminopie 90o,O00« Aleppo sgcoooi^ 

Cairo 400,000, Ancona 104,000, Smtnu lao^ooy 

Adtianople 80,000. 
Longitude of central point 37^ 15' eaft« 
Latitude of ditto 36^. 
Longitude of capital aS^ 56' is"caft. 
Latitude of ditto 41^ I 'north. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon 6s. sod. 

The produflionsof the Turkifii EinpireirreiifMMerQiM> 
Corn of all forts ; great variety of fine fruits. Silk, cot- 
ton, coffee, fugar cane, tobacco; copper, and other 
metals ; marble, gum, fpices of different forts ; cattle of 
^11 foru ; alfo camels, lions, &c. 



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C a* ] 
THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN. 



Since. OIow Skanthonung firft affumcd the title of 
King of Sweden, and introduced Chridianity. there in 
the year icx^o, the revolutions in that kingdom have been 
numerous. 1 be reigns, of Guftavus Adolphus, the 
greateft warrior of his age, and of Charles Xll. con- 
ferred a temporary fplendpur upon Sweden, which, whilft 
neighbouring kmgdoms have been rifmg and falling, ha^, 
amidft all its .own revolutions, and of thofe around, 
maintained . a . very reipeSable rank as a fecond-rate 
power. . 

The royal, authority was abfolute till 1718, but from 
that time .the. ilates of the realm gained upon the royal 
prerogative rather to the detriment of the public weal, 
until a revolution, very artfully ^nd ably condudled by 
the late, king Guftavus III, took place in 17929 an4 
the monarchy again became abfolute. Guftavus was 
one of thofe kings who ufed his power to make his fub- 
je£ls happy ; neverthelefs he was afiaffinated in 1792, an 
event regretted univerfally at the time. His brother, the 
Duke of Sudermania, was regent during the minority of 
the. prefent king, Guiiavus Adolphus IV, who fhews the 
fame difpofition vvith his father, and bids f^ir to make 
his fubje£ts happy. 

The fucceffion is hereditary both in the male and 
female line. Sweden is well fituated for manufadures 
and commerce, but neither the one nor the other have 
been pufhed or encouraged fo as they might have been. 
There, as well as in other northern nations, a different 
fyftem is neceffary for the encouragement of the arts and 
manufadiures from what will fucceed in warmer climates, 
f^nd upon a more fertile foil. 



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THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN. 23 



Extent in fquare miles • 209,000 

Number of inhabitants 3,000,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 14 

Extent in Englifli acres 1 33,000,000 

Number of acres to each perfon * * 44^' 

Number of aCrcs in cultivation 24,000,000 

Revenues in pounds fterling 1,500,000 

Amount of public debt 7,000,000 

Land forces in time of peace ............... 50,000 

Ditto, in time of war 140,000 

Seamen in time of peace 15,000 

Ditto in time of war 35,000 

Ships of the line 30 

Frigates, flobps, &;c.— 10 frigates & 60 ^llies, in ail 70 

Extent of fea coaft in leagues • 380 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 80,000 

Amount of exports to England 290,0OQ 

Amount of imports from England • . 170,000 

Great divifions of the country, Sweden, Gothland, 
Northland, Lapland, Finland, romerania, Wifmer 7 

Smaller divifions, provinces or diftri£^s 44 

Chief towns, Stockholm 80,000, Gothenburg 20,000, 
^ Carl&rona ii,oco, StralAind io,ooo. 
Longitude of capital 18^ 3' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 59^ 20' north. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon ics. 
Keligion, Lutheran. Calvinift alone to}erate(). 

Swfiden produces corn, hemp, flax, and cattle of moft 
forts. £.ut its main obje£b of exportation nre iron, cop« 
|]eer, ?xA Mmber ; hides, flUns, and tallow. 



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• L H J 
THE GERMAN EMPiRE 

BEFORE THE WAR. 



Th£ principalities of Germany in the 8th centuiy, 
then united to France, became formidable under the 
JEmperor Charlemagne. In 887 it was feparated, and 
became an independent and diAin<5l Empire under here- 
ditary princes, but in 1085 became ele&ive, and has ever 
fince remained fo. 

It would be difficult to. conceive a more inefficient 
form of government for a country than fuch a number 
of princes, all jof them entitled to vote in cafe of war, but 
at perfeft liberty to contribute or withhold their contin* 
gent in money and in troops. 

It is very fortunate that the princes of the houfe of 
Auftria, which is in itfelf powerful and poiifefied of 
great territories and revenue, are eligible to the imperial 
throne, and have been eledied ; otherwife the Empire 
would be npw the moft fragile political combination that 
has perhaps ever exiiled. 

Th^ princes have too many rights to be compelled to 
co-operation in an effi:£tual manner, from doing which 
their 4ifferent views and interefts prevent them. Of this 
we were lately the witnefles, and are about to contem- 
plate the confequences. when, the Empire bein^ dimi<i» 
niflied in its extent, tnofe who have not fuffered owing 
to local fitqation are to be compelled to indemnify others 
that have^ 

The . German conftitution, of great antiquity, and as 
'H were a middle flep between the feudal fyftem and 
limited monarchy, cannot be expedled to refift the violent 
$md fyftematical attacks that are in thefe times dire£te4 
9^ainft every old and eftiblifhed form of government. 



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GB&MAN EMPIRE BEFORE TlfB WAR. 25 



Extent in fquare miles • 197,000 

Number of inhabitants 25,000,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 128 

Extent in Englifh acres I26,ooo»ooo 

Number of acres to each perfon • • • 5 

Number of acres in cultivation . . . . , 90,000,000 

Revenues in pounds fterling 1*4,000,000 

Land forces in time of peace 120,000 

Ditto in time of war a6o,ooQ 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 254,000 

Amount of exports to England 950,000 

Amount of imports from England 1,420,000 

Great divifions of the country, 6 Ele<Sorates,-| 

16 Principalities, 11 Ecclefiallical States, I 
Iicfier ditto, 4 Imperial free cities, and Impe- ^ 41 

rial, Pruffian, Swedifh, and Dani(h terri- i 

tories, . J 

Chief towns, Vienna, Berlin, Hamburgh, Liege, 

Munich, Franckfort. 
Longitude of central point 12^ eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 50° north. 
Longitude of the capital 16^ 22' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 48° 12' north. 
Amount of taxes on each perl'on iis. ad. 
Rate of intercft of money, 
Extent of fea coast, none. 
Religion, Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinift, 

upon a footing of equality. 

Tlic produftions are abundant and various. All forts 
of grain, cattle, and fruits; quickfilvcr, copper, and 
other metals. Copperas, allum, tobacco, filk, timber, 
olive oil, ^c. &c. 



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[ 26 ] 
THE EMPEROR'S DOMINIONS 

BEFORE THE WAR. 



When Charles V. who was Emperor of Germany 
as well as King of Spain, refigned his imperial and royal 
honours and power for a cell in a convent, he left his 
German dominions to his brother, and Spain to his fon* 
Phillip II. 

The male line of Aufiria became extinfk by the death 
pf Charles VI. who was fucceeded in his hereditary do- 
minions by his daughter Maria Terefa, married to Francis 
Grand Duke of Tufcany, in the year 1740. To Maria 
Terefa fucceeded her fon Jofeph II. who was elefled 
Emperor in 1765. By Galicia, Lodomiria, Buckowena, 
and the quarter of the Inn, he added three millions to the 
number of his fubje(fis ; and after many well-intended, 
but rather unfuccefsful attempts, to make phiJofophicaj 
reforms among hisfubje£ts, he died difappointed in 1790. 
Leopold fucceeded, and reigning only two years, his ion 
Francis IL was chofen Emperor. 

There is a vast variety of foil in the Emperor's heredi- 
tary dominions. The Auftrian Netherlands, and th« 
Duchies of Milan and Mantua, being remarkably fertile 
and well cultivated ; Lodomiria and Galicia, taken from) 
Poland, are likewife very fine countries ; and upon the 
whole, the Emperor's eftates are much above par with 
rcfpe<£l to fertility and riches. 

As the German Empire and the hereditary dominions 
are in part the fame, and in part not, it is difficult to 
make a clear diAin£tion betwixt them; one obfervation 
may however be made relative to both, which is, that 
if ever the ftates of the Empire fhould a£t in contradic- 
tion to the houfe of Auftria, alone more powerful thaii 
all of them together, they will lofe their importance in 
Europe, and lay a foundation for their own deilru^ioq. 



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emperor's dominions before the war. 2 7 



Extent in fqtiare miles • , 180,000 

Number of inhabitants . . . .' 199000,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 108 

Extent in Englifh acres 1 15,000,000 

Number of acres of land to one perfon 6 

Revenues in pounds fterling 1 1,000,000 

Amount of public debt 40,000,000 

Land forces in time of peace 365,000 

Ditto in time of war • . 450,000 

Leagues of fea coaft (18) 18 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 254,000 

Number of cultivated acres 75,000,000 

Exports to Endand : | p, j , c 3 o.coo 

Imports frcJm England J ^ c i, 400,000 

Great divifions of the country 1 

Smaller diviflons J •...».. 

Chief towns, Vienna 254,0 o, Milan 130,000, Bruf- 
fels .8o,f00, Prague 60,000, Ghent 60,000, Ant- 
werp 50,000. 
Longitude of central point 14^ 20' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 47^ 30' north. 
Longitude of capital 16^ 21' 30" eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 48^ 4 2 ' 32". 
Amount of taxes on each perfon, 12s. 
Religion, Roman Catholic ; but general toleration. 

The productions are various. Corn, flax, hemp; 
cattle, wine, copper, quickfilver, zinc, and other metals. 
Coal, porcelain, and mod forts of fruit. 



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C i8 ] 
THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK, 



Dbmmark was a few centuries ago one of the mod 

warlike nacions of Europe, and the people are ftill of a 
very brave nature. In addition to their acquifitioos in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, which were but of a 
temporary duration, the Danes fecured to themfelves 
the pofleffion of Greenland in the ilth century^ and of 
Iceland in the 13th. 

Neither the population nor the revenues of Denmark 
are fufficient to fupport it in the rank it formerly held ; 
it is therefore a fecond-rate power, and has wifely con- 
trived for a long period to keep free of quarrels with 
other nations. 

The government is abfolute hereditary monarchy 
fince the year 1660, when the people in a voluntary 
manner made a facrifice of their liberties to their king $ 
from which time Denmark has been in a more doarim- 
ing ftate than before. This is a flrange fa£l, contrafted 
with what during the fame period has happened to the 
unfortunate Poles, and is fu£5cient to make people 
fceptical with regard to all theories about modes or forms 
of government. During the prefent war Denmark ha^ 
carried on a great trade, and become much more wealthy 
than it ever was before ; and no nation in Europe has been 
fo free from that political influenza that has prevailed 
ottenfively within thefe laft twelve years. 

The laws of Denmark are all contained in one volume, 
and jullice is adminiftered properly, and at fmall expence ; 
which is much more important to the happinefs of the 
people than any reform that could be efiected in the 
government. 



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KINGDOM OF DENMARK. 29 



Extent in fquare miles 170,000 

Number of inhabttants ...*•• 2,150,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile it 

Extent in Engli(h acres 108,000,000 

'Number of acres to one perfon 54 

Revenues in pounds fterltng 1,520,000 

Public debts 2,600,000 

Land forces in time of peace • • • . . 75,000 

Ditto in time of war 

Number of feamen in time of peace 18,000 

Ditto in time of war 

Ships of the line 26 

Frigates, floops, &c. — 7 frigates of 50 guns, and fmall 
vefiels. 

Leagues of fea coaft 573 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 90,000 

Number of cultivated acres 12,600,000 

Exports to Endand T 10,300 

Imports from England 219,000 

Great divifions ofthe country 3 

Smaller ditto .12 

Chief towns, Copenhagen, Altona, Elfineur. 

Longitude ofcentral point of Denmark Proper 10^ 15'. 

Latitude of ditto 55" 30' north. 

Longitude of chief city 12^ eaft. 

Latitude of ditto 55^ 41 ' north. 

Religion, Lutheran ; others tolerated. 

Amount of taxes on each perfon 15s. 3d. 

' The principal prbduflions are corn, hasp, flax and 
cattle. An inferior quality of fir timber is exported from 
Norway in confiderable quantity ; but none of the Daniih 
dominions are &mous for manuia&ures ; and in fuel) a 
latitude the finer produdions of the earth are not to be 
eKpe^ed. 



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P O LA N D 

BEFORE THE DIVISION IN 1793. 



sti 



This extenfive and fruitful country, better peopled 
than any . of the neighbouring nations, and with a brave 
race of inhabitants, has however been efiaced from tiie 
rank of indepeudent nations, and is now divided between 
Huffia, Pruili9, and Auftria. Too jealous of its liberties 
to fubmit to an hereditary race of monarchsy the Poles 
had at lad recourfe to the dangerous expedient of having 
eledive kings, forgetting that difturbances will infallibly 
arife wherever princes are allowed to be claimants. 

The feudal fyilem ftill prevails in Poland, which in 
that refpeft is three centuries behind the other nations of 
Europe ; confequently their eledivie kings had neither 
pcwer in the interior, nor revenue, nor forces, in any 
degree equal to other monarchs. 

When in former times great feudal lords raifed teni- 
porary armiqs.all oyer Europe, Poland llood high amongft 
warlike nations; but fince ftanding armies have been 
introduced, and their fuperiority afcertained, Poland has 
gradually funk, and thofe great lords and their vaflals 
have become the fubjefts of ftrangei*s. 

This partition of Poland in 1793 and 1796, were not 
the fir (I attempts towards its difmemberment. In 1771 
the fame three powers had each taken a portion, but they 
left a remnant, to which independence and the name 
was dill attached. That tianfadi ion, unoppofed by neutral 
powers, or rather permitted by them, was the firft devia* 
tion frem the fyftematic balance of power in Europe, by 
which the ftrong protected the feeble; the deviation from 
which laid the foundation for the new fyftem of partitions, 
indemnities, and mutual accommod-^tions, or ^lutual fpo*. 
liations, which now begins to be praflifed, in oppqfition to 
the intereils and peace of mankind, as well as to the law. 
of nature and of nations. 



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1»OLAND B£FOl.£ THE DIVISION IN 1 793. 3I 



Extent in fquare miles • • 160,000 

Number of inhabitants ...•*»••• 8,500,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile « 53 

Extent in Englifli acres 103,000,000 

Number of acres to each perfon , 12 

Revenues in pounds fterling 450,000 

Land forces in time of peace 1 8,000 

Ditto in time of war «^ • • • • • 100,000 

Leagues of fea coaft 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 80,000 

Number of cultivated acres 40,000 

Great divifions of the country • • 6 

Chief towns, Warfaw, Dantzig, Cracow. 
Longitude of central point 24^ eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 53^ north. 
Longitude of chief town 2 1 ^ eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 52^ 14' north. 
Religion, Roman Catholic and Lutheran . 
Amount of taxes on each individual is. 2d. 

A very fruitful country, producing great quantities of 
corn, flax, and cattle. There are alio mines of filver, 
copper, lead, and quickfilver. Timber and fkins, tallow 
and fait provifions, make the chief articles of e^^portation. 



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i 3* 3 

FRANCE 

ftKFO&S THE REVOLUTION. 

Originally the freeft nation in Europe, France gradu- 
ally Ittffered- its liberties to be abferbed in royal preroga- 
tive; and the ftates generalya oon^Vutional legiflatlve 
power, intended as a controul on the executive power, 
had long been difpenfed with> fo that tlie government 
ended in abiblute monarchy. The parliament o^ Pari^^ 
which was only a court of jnftice, under colour of op* 
poiing royal prerogative^ had often attempted to become, 
and aflnsdled to confideritfelf asthe guardian of the peopte 
and as reprefenting the ftates genersu ; but all their efforts 
againft the royal power only terroinatlsd in its more firm 
eftabliihment, until the laft efibrt, which overturned it 
entirely. 

The French are violent, quick, senerous, and enthu- 
fiaftic; but cool deliberation^ a fenle of joftice, an atten*- 
tive regard to maxims of prudence are neceffary in either 
a republican or a mixed government. In all the aflem- 
blies of the ftates general, previous to 1789, the impa- 
tience of fome, and the enthuiiafm of others, enabled the 
court to triumph* In the laft meeting, when the current 
of public opinion fet in in another direflion, it was with 
a violence that nothing could refift, and the monarchy 
was fpeedily fwept away, together with every inftitution 
attached to it. 

The power of the many wtis the firft fubftitute for 
the power of the few ; but this is a defpotifm in wliich 
there is no juftice, no fafety, no prote£tion, which has in 
all times been ftiort-lived, and individual tyrants have 
ftarted up and governed in its name. Several fuch have 
governed in France, with great feverity, until at laft a 
general of uncommon perfonal merit and abilities, has 
ventured to ameliorate the ftate of the people, and to 
govern with mildnefs and moderation. How it will be 
when the courfe of events put the reins of government 
into feebler hands is very uncertain ; but it is to be hoped, 
for the lake of humanity, that experience will teach mo- 
deration, and misfortune fet bounds to enthufiafm. 

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JRANCE BEFORE THE REVOLUTION. 33 



Extent in fquare miles • • . 149,000 

Number of inhabitants 26,0:0,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 174 

Extent in Englidi acres 95,000,000 

Number of acres to each perfon 3I 

Bevenue in pounds fteiling 19,000,000 

Public debts • 250,000,000 

Land forces in time of peace 225,000 

Ditto, in time of war • 500,000 

Seamen in time of peace 24,000 

Ditto, in time of war ..•...•• 120,000 

Ships of the line • • 75 

Frigates, floops, &c •.••••••• 185 

Xreagues of feacoaft 470 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 700,000 

Number of cultivated acres 75,000,000 

Revenues of the clergy, reckoned before the revolu- 
tion 25,000,000 

Exports to England . • 45,000 

Imports from ditto .••••••; • • • • 150,000 

Great divifionsof the country • 17 

Chief towns, Paris, Lyons, Marfeilles, Bourdeaax, 

Nantes, Strafburg. 
Longitude of central point 2^ 30' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 46^ 30 ' north. 
Longitude of capital 2^ 20' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 48^ 50' north. 
Religion, Roman Catholic. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon 14s. 8d. 

There is not a more fruitful country than France, but 
there are few mines of any fort in it, confequently the 
exports confift chiefly of wines, fruits, and manufaaures 
.of a finer kind, for which that nation is famous ; giving 
in general the law in matters of tafte and faihion to aU 
the nations in Europe. 

C 



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t 34 ] 
THE KINGDOM OF SPAIN. 



The foundation of the preient Spaniih monarcfajr was 
laid fiihtely asLtheyear 1491, by Feidiiiand I. whodrove 
the Arabs out of Grenada, after having nnited Airaq^ 
with Cafttle, by efpoufing Kabeila, heirefs df the latttf 
kingdom. Previoufly to the time of Ferdinand, Spain 
bad been perpetually over-run by the Arabt, and only 
dated its greatnefs from that period* For rather mofe 
than a century it was the richeft and uMft powerful king- 
dom in Europe v and it is an opinion entertained^ not 
only by mankind in general but by many of thofe who 
ought to be better informed, that Spain owes its depo- 
pulation and decline to the expulfion of the Moors in 
2508, when, in realif]^, the glory of Spam commenced 
with Ferdinand, and its decline more Aan fifty years 
afterwards, when Charles V. by the conqioeft of Mexico 
and Peru, had opened a door for the influx of gold 
and the emigration of men. Gold came in by millions 
every year, and men went over to America, in multi- 
tudes, with the hopes of iharing in tbe wealth of newly- 
difcovered mines. Thefe cauies, togedicr with an ilU 
eondu£ted government, the negle& of agriculture and 
kiduftry, occafioned by the influx of the precioos metall, 
which introduced luxury and idlenefs, gradually reduced 
the power and importance of Spain, which reduction, tbe 
wild projefls of Philip XL tended greatly to precipitate. 

Spain, once the firft in wealth and power amongft 
nations, is reduced to a fecondary cla&, and fince the 
French revolution has ihewn a want of energy that even 
the pofieffion of unearned gold can Scarcely account for. 

The form of government is monarchical and hereditary.. 
The Coi'tez is a deliberative body intended to controul 
the executive power, but, like the ftates-general in France 
before the revolution, has not been called tc^tfaer for 
many years. When they are, perhaps the confequences 
wiU bclimihr. 

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KINGDOM OF SPAIN. 35 



Extent in fquare miles ..••••••.•• 148,000 

Number of inhabitants ••••••.•••••••.•. xi»ooo,ooo 

Number of perfons to a fijuare mile •••••• 74 

Extent in Engliih acres • 94»ooo»ooo 

Number of acres of land to each perfon • . 8x 

Rerenues in pounds ftcrling • • 14,000,000 

Amount of public debt 48»ooo,ooo 

Land forces in time of peace .,•.., • • . . 1049OOO 

Ditto in time of war • • 250,000 

Number of feamen in time of peace 40,000 

Ditto in time of war • 104,000 

Ships of the line 74 

Frigates, Hoops, &c. • • • . • • 1^6 

Leagues of feacoaft • , , 466 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 140,000 

Number of cultivated acres 40,000,000 

Number of parifhes 19,600 

Exports to England on an average laft ten years 600,000 

Imports from England ditto, ditto 1,400,000 

Revenuesof the ckrgy, of whom there are above 300,000^ 
not known. 

Great diviiions of the country 15 

Chief towns, Madrid, Cadis, Valencia, and Seville. 
Longitude of central point 4^ 1 1 ^ weft. 
Latitude of ditto 39^ 50^ north. 
Longitude of capital city 3^ 1^ 15" weft. 
Latitude of ditto 40^ 2,6* north. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon il. 5s. 5d. 

Spain produces wine, fruits of all forts, olives, com, 
rice, faffron^ barilla, and faltpetre. Cattle of all forts; 
gold, iilver, iron, lead, copper, quickfilv^, cinnabar, to* 
timony, &c. 



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C 36 ) 
BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Great Britain was called Britannia by the Romans^ 
who invaded it fifty-five years before the birth of Chrift, 
from which time, till tlie year 446, it remained under 
their yoke. The Danes and Saxons ruled altematety 
till the invafion of William the Conqueror in 1066. lit 
1 1 72 Ireland was conquered, and in 12P4 Wales. lit 
1603 the crowns of England and Scotland were united 
lindcr James I. in 1706 their parliaments were united, 
and in 1800 the Englifti and Irifti parliaments, fo that 
there is now only one parliament for the three kingdoms. 

The form of government is monarchical, the fuc- 
teffion to which is hereditary in both lines in the houfe 
of Brunfwick: Thelegiflative power vefted inking, lords, 
and commons, but the executive in the king affifted by 
a council of his own nomination*. 

England is now the firft Commercial and manufaftur- 
ing nation ; it is alfo the grcateft naval power. Its re- 
Venues and expenditure arc beyond thofe of any other 
tiation. 

The ufe of machinery has been carried to an immenfc 
length, and its conftruclion to great perfeflion, fo that 
the labour of more than three millions of perfons is per- 
formed by inanimate workmen as they may be termed, 
who both toil and fpin without requiring either food of 
raiment, the keeping of which irt repair, added to the 
intereft of the firft expence, does not amount to above 
three halfpence a day 6n the labour of one perfon worth 
a (hilling, the agregate gain on which is three millions 
of French livres in one day, or j^. i26,coo ! ! it is owing 
chiefly to fuch inventions that this nation is able to fup- 
port its great debts and annual expences. 

England is fruitful and well cultivated, but exports 
little of it3 produce. Of late years the corn produced 
has not been equal to fupply the country. 

* This form of government is the bcft yet eftabliflied in any country, 
being a happy mean between abfolute monarchy and the turbulent fyftems 
of federations and perfe^ equality. 

Extent 



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BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 37 



Extent in fquare miles 104,000 

Number of inhabitants • • I4»ooo,ooo 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile ....•.••.... 136 

Extent in Englifh acres • • • . 67,000,000 

Number of acres to each perfon •••.•• 4l 

Number of acn^s in cultivation 40,000,000 

Revenues in pounds fterling 27,000,000 

Amount of public debt, 400,000,000 

Land forces in time of peace , 45,000 

Ditto regulars and militia of all forts this virar . • 350,000 

Seamen in time of peace • . • 18,0 .0 

Ditto in time of war 112,0 'O 

Ships of the line 187 

Frigates, iloops, &c 441 

Extent of feacoaft in leagues 1,200 

Tonnage of merchant (hips i ,8oo,coo 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 1,100,000 

Number of pariflies, 9,000 in England and 1000 in 

Scotland (not including Ireland) 10,000 

Exports to all parts, average 30,c 00,000 

Imports from all parts, ditto 25,000,000 

Expence of maintaining the poor 3,000,000 

Expence of the clergy 7,000,000 

Great dividons of the country, England, Scotland, Wales, 

Ireland » 4 

Smaller divifions, counties >^17 

Chief towns, London, Dublin, Edinburgh, York, Liver- 
pool, Briftol, Newcaftle. 
Longitude of central point I^ 3' weft. 
Latitude of ditto 53^ 40' north. 
Longitude of the capital city o^ o', this and moft Englifti 

books calculate from the meridian of London. 
Latitude of ditto 51^ 31' north. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon il. i8s. 3d. 
Rate of intereft of money, 5 per cent, in England and 

Scotland, 6 per cent, in Ireland. 
Religion, Proteftant, Lutheran and Calvinift ; all fefts 
tolerated. 

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, r 38 3 

THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA. 



So late as the year 1656 Pruilia was only a fief of the 
kingdom of Poland, of wnichit is now one <m the niafters. 
It was rendered independent of Poland by C Frederick 
WilUam, then Duke of Prqffia and Marquis of Bran* 
denburgh, but a warlike and great prince. 

Fruffia firft rofe to the rank of a kingdom in 1 70T» 
under Charles Frederick III. whofe political condu^ 
was fuch as to Biake the fmall dominions over which he 
irttled of fp much importance, that his title w^ acknow* 
lecked by ^11 the powers of Eyrope^ 

It was when Frederick II. better known by the name 
of Frederick the Qreat,afcended the throne in 1740, that 
Fruffia began to bc CQnfidered as one of the l^iding 
powers in Europe^ to which title, that great monarch, 
before he died in 178^, fully eftabliflied its cbim. He 
gradually increafed the extent of his dominions, man- 
^n^ d^fper^te and eKpenfive wars againft formidable 
j)eighbouFS» yet terminated them with advantage and 
glory. Notwithftaodipghis wars, and with a very limited 
revenue, Frederick e;xpended annually more than half 
a million fie.rlipg io the encouragement of arts, and in 
advancing interqal profperity ; and while the great and 
wealthy natJQns of Europe were running in debt, this 
abfdiute nxonarch died with a full treafury, leaving as his 
laft charge to his high chancellor, an order to draw up a 
better cc^e of laws tor the fubje£ts of his fucceflbr. 



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TftS KINGDOM or PRUSSIA.. 39 



Extent in fquare miles • 56,000 

Number of ittbabiunts 5'SOOyooo 

Numibcrof pcrfoos to a (quarc 0uk 90 

Extent in Englifli acres 34,000,000 

Number of acres to each peribn • • . . 6 

Revenues in pounds fteriing. 4,^00,000 

Land forces in tinac of peace • . . 224,000 

Ditto, in time of war 350^000 

Leagues of feacoaft 50 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 80,000 

Number of cukivatcd acres 25,000,000 

Great divifions of die coontry *... ^ 

Smaller ditto .*• »7 

Chief towns, Berlin, Brcflaw, KJonigfterg. 

Longitude of central point 

Latitude of ditto 

Longitude of capital 13^ 22^ yf 9S&. 

Latitude of ditto 52^ 31' 30" north. 

Amount of taxes on each perfon 14s. od, 

Eftablifhed religion, Protcftant. 

The produflions of Pruffia are corn of all forts. Fruits, 
faK,hemp,hop«^horfe^piqtlc, fcrep, timber, metals, |cc. 



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( 40 ] 
NAPLES AND TWO SICILIES. 



Like other Italian dates, Naples and the Sicilies have" 
.undergone nuroeFous changes which have generally been 
.of little irop«irtance except for the moment. After hav- 
ing been alternately in the handsof the Germans, French, 
and Spaniards, for feveral centuries, Ferdinand IV. the 
third fon of Charles III. king of Spain, was created king 
of the Sicilies in i'54, and commenced his reign in 1767 
with an exprefs (lipulation that Naples and the Sicilies 
,£hould never again be united to the crown of Spain, 

The Neapolitan dominions are by nature fruitful and 
.ri^h beyond almofl any other country ; but as the people 
are. idle, turbulent, and mutinous, Naples never has 
cither enjoyed power or tranquillity. There is a clafs of 
people here, unknown in any other European nation, and 
di(lingui{hed by the name of Lazaroni, who by the fa- 
vour of fo fine a climate are ifenahlecl to live almoft alto- 
gether in the open air, and by a fpecies of difcipline 
amongft themfelves^ and their great numbers, they are 
formidable both to the court and the people. What 
changes may redilt from the prefent war it is not eafy yet 
to fay ; but the beft guarantee feems to arife from the 
family connexion with the thrones of Spain and Auftria. 



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NAPLES AND TWO SICILIES. 



Extent in fquarc miles , 30,000 

Number of inhabitants * 6,ooo,oo3 

Number of perfotis to a fquare mile 200 

Extent in EnglHh acres 19,200,000 

Number of acres to each perfon 3^ 

Revenues in pounds fterling 1 ,40?,o^o 

Land forces in time of peace 34>000 

Ditto in time of war 8aobo 

Seamen in time of peace S^SOO 

Ditto in time of war 8,000 

Ships of the line 4 , 

Frigates, floops, 5cc. galliots, gallies, &c.f .23 

Extent of feacoaft in leagues 585 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 380,000 

Revenues of clergy, efti mated at one-half the revenues, 

and one-third of the lands in the kingdom, 200,000 in 

number. 

Great divifions of the country 4 

Smaller divifions • • 19 

Chief towns, Naples, Palermo, Bari, Gatanea. ' 

Longitude of central point in Italy 15^ lo' eaft. 

Latitude of ditto 41^ north. 

Longitude of capital 14^ 12' caft. 

Latitude of ditto 40^ 50' north. 

Amount of taxes on each perfon 46. 9d. 

Religion, Roman Catholic. 

Naples and the Sicilies produce corn, excellent fruits, 
olives, wine, rice, tobacco, cotton ; cattle of all forts, 
goldy iUveri irooi marble, alabafter, pit coal, &c. 



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f 42 ] 

THE KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL. 



Portugal may be confidered as Spain in miniatare, 
being in (ituation, foil, and climate* nearly iimilar. 
Like Spain it flourifhed and was wealthy on account of 
Its pofiei&ons abroad, and like Spain it has fnnk from the 
importance it once enjoyed. 

The form of government is defpotic, the fucceffion 
hereditary in either fex in the houfe of Braganza. The 
Portugese were the firft that doubled the Cape of Good 
Hope» as well as that difcovered the Brazils, in the end of 
the 1 6th century, and for a confiderable period were, next 
to Spain, the mod brilliant and wealthy people in Europe; 
but, like Spain, Portugal is a monument of the evanefcent 
nature of wealth ariiing from foreign poQeffions. Agri-< 
culture, indudry, and manufadlures, which keep up the 
good habits of a people, are true and permanent fourcesof 
profperity; but an influx of gold deftroys thofe true 
fources, and replaces them with falfe ones, which, gra- 
dually difappearing, leave a nation in liftlefs ina£iivity# 
incapable of even maintaining the rank to which it i^ 
naturally entitled. 

The precious metals which it imports from the Brazils 
remain but a very little time in Portugal, being employed 
to buy mahufa^ured goods from other more induArtous 
nations. Thefe are to the amount of about two millions 
flerling per annum. 



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KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL. 43 



Extent in fquare miles 27,000 

Number of inhabitants • .• • J98389O09 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 67 

Extent in £ngli(b acres ; . • . 17,2809000 

Number of acres of land to one perfon 10 

Revenues in pounds fterling 2,1509000 

Amount of public debt 4,000,000 

Lfand forces in time of peace 36,000 

Ditto in time of war • 60,000 

Seamen in timeof peace i2,coo 

Ditto, in time of war 22,000 

Ships from 40 to 80 guns 18 

Frigates, floops, &c 40 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 120,000 

Number of pariflies (and above 200,000 eccle« 

iiaftics) 3*500 

Great divifions of the country 5 

Amount of taxes on each perfon, iL 3s. 2d. 

Extent of feaccaft in leagues • • 166 

Chief towns, Lifbon, Oporto. 

Loneitude of capital (moft wefterly town in Europe) 

9 9' ^S" ^^*- 
Latitude df ditto 38° 42' 20" north. 
Longitude of central point 8^ 20' weft. 
Latitude of ditto 39^ 30' north. 
Religion, Roman Catholic ; they are not tolerant to 

other religions. 

The produ^ons of Portugal are the fame with thofe 
of Spain. The particular ipecies of wine called port 
is in great requeft towards the north of Europe, 
and in England more than any other country. The 
quantities of this wine that are produced are very great, 
and make the principal article of exportation from For* 
tugal. 



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[ 44 ] 
SARDINIA AND SAVOY. 



This kingdom confifts of the ifland of Sardinia in the 
Mediterranean fea, and the dutchy of Savoy on the north- 
weft of Italy, together with the country of Piedmont, 
with fome other dependencies. 

It is one of thofe kingdoms which has owed its poli- 
tical importance chiefly to the talents and family con- 
nexions of the reigning princes. 

Strongly fituated amongft the Alps, with a vigorous 
tnd uncorrupted race of inhabitants, and a line of princes 
equally brave and virtuous, the continental dominions, 
though fmall, fupported a refpeSable ftate of independ- 
ence, and their princes, though never chief in any war, 
were contidered as defirable allies or dangerous enemies 
by. thofe who did engage in military contefts. Since the 
year 1016 the prefent race have governed in Savoy, al- 
though it is only fo late as the year 1718 that Sardinia 
was added, and the title of kingdom conferred on thofe 
united poiTeffions. 

Now that war has become fo expenfive, the import- 
ance of fmall ftates with little revenue muft decreafe ra- 
pidly ; and fuch is the cafe with the kingdom now under 
confideration. 



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SARDINIA AND SAVOY^ 45 



Extent in fquarc miles 20,000 

>fumber of inhabitants 39253,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 162 

Extent in Englifh acres i2,8oo,ODO 

Number of acres of land to one perfon • • • 4 

Revenues in pounds (lerling i»850,oo6 

Amount of public debt, none. 

Land forces in time of peace 38,000 

Ditto, in time of war ... ioo,000 

Seamen in time of peace 6,0QO 

Ditto, in time of war 10,000 

Ships of the line, frigates, floops, galliots, galleys, &c. 1 

veflels of all forts armed i 3 

Extent of feacoaft in leagues 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 82,000 

Great divifions of the country 5 

Smaller divifions 19 

Chief towns, Turin, Vercelli, Cagliari. 

Longitude of central point, continental dominion, 7° 30' 

eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 45^ north. 
Longitude of capital 7^ 40' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 44^ 5 north. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon los. 6d. 
Religion, Roman Catholic, but tolerant. - 

Savoy is rather a barren country, but Piedmont and Sar- 
dinia abound in the produ£lions of Italy, corn, wine, oil, 
fruits of all forts, and great numbers of cattle ; filjc is alfo 
produced in very confiderable quantities. 



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t 46 ] 

SEVEN UNITED PROVINCES. 

The whole of the 17 provinces, which belonged 
to the Dakes of Burgundy, devolved to the houfe of 
Auftria in 1477 by marriage, and afterwards by mar- 
liage alfo to the crown of Spain ; but a number of thofe 
provinces foon began to ftruggle for liberty, and after an 
uncommon difplay of bravery and perfeverance during 
the long term of '80 years, feven of them obtained that 
independence which tney had fo well deferved. Holland 
being the chief of thefe feven provinces, it has been 
cuftomary to call the whole union by that name. 

Holland became the greateft commercial country 
in the world, confequemly a very rich and refpe£t* 
able power both by fea and land, but more particu- 
larly fo by fea. 

T hisprofperity, however, as ufual, was not of very long 
duration ; for though it did not brihg indolence and 
luxury into Holland in the fame manner that it had 
done into Spain and Portugal, yet induftry did relax, 
and the merchants who ufed to (peculate for themfelves 
were contented with receiving the fmall but certain 
profits of agents for others, from which time the Dutch 
importance has been on the decline. Difcontent and 
fa<^ion have tended greatly to reduce the country, which, 
from being a firft-rate power, has now fallen to lefs than 
fl fecond-rate, or rather to that of a fubjedicd province of 
France ; but this will pro|)ably not long continue. 



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SEVEN UNITED ntOTIKCES. 47 



Extent in fquare miles •.••••••.••«.•• 10,000 

Number of inhabitants » 2,758,000 

Number of perfons to a iquare mile 257 

Extent in Englifh acres 6,400,009 

Number of acres of land to each perfon 2f 

Revenues in pounds fierling • 395co,ooo 

Public debts in ditto . • « • 1 1,000,000 

Land forcea in tinfie of peace 36,000 

Ditto in time of war 

Seamen in time of peace 16,000 

Ditto in time of war 40,000 

Ships of the line 40 

Frigates, Hoops, galliots, &c 50 

Number of inhabitants in the capital 212,000 

Number of pariflies about 1,600 

Amount of exports to England 600,000 

Amount of imports from ditto • 1,900,000 

Leagues of feacoaft » 236 

Great divifions of the country 9 

Chief towns, Amfterdam, Rotterdam, Leyden, Harlem^ 

the Hague 
Longitude of capital 5^4' eaft. 
Latitude of ditto 52° 22' north. 
Longitude of central point 5^ 30' eaft. 
Latitude of central point 54'^ north. 
Amount of taxes on each perfon il. 12s. jji. 
Religion^ Calvinift ; but tolerant to all otheis. 



No country is better cultivated or more produdive for 
its extent ; but the population is fo great that moftly all is 
confumed in the country. Butter, cheefe, and falted pro- 
▼ifions are however exported, and fifliing is followed 
with great induilry and fuccefs by that indefatigable 
people. Every fpecies of induftry is on the decline. 

Befides 



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C 48 ] 



Befides the fourteen powers which have been repre* 
lented in the chart, there are, or rather there were, the 
following fmall dates. 



Venice 

Switzerland 

State of the church 

Tufcany 

Genoa 

Parma 

Modena > « . 

Ragufa 

Malta 

Lucca 

Monaco 

Marino 



Extent ia 
Iq. miles. 

i5,0OD 

i3»8oo 

7,000 

1,440 

1,440 

1,440 

352 

128 

288 

49 

3« 



Popttlation. 

2,600,000 
2,000,000 
2,000,000 
1,250,000 

40o,coo 
300,000 
320,000 

56,000 
150,000 
120,000 

10,000 
5,000 



Revenue. 

1,800,000 

1,000,000 

800,000 

500,006 

i8o,oco 
1 70,000 
140,000 

20,0CO 

75»ooo 

17,000 

5000 



Thofe ftates are of fo fmall an extent that they have 
long been of very little weight in the political (cale of 
Europe, and now they are reduced fo as to l>e of no con- 
fequence whatever. Venice is indeed a valuable acquis 
fition to the Emperor. It was the oldeft republic in 
Europe till its government was overturned in 1796; and 
at one time it was rich and powerful. The Italian ftates 
firll began the fyftem of alliances and the balance of 
power in Europe, and they have been the firft to be facri- 
ficed in confequence of its deftruSion. At prefent the 
French government is all powerful in Italy, where there 
is nothing but difcontent and confufion. 



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VENuri^ 



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TKSV^- ' " ' 



"ihfervations on^ and explanation ffChitrt tdf nprefenmg 
tbi principal nations of Europe ^ as theyjland^ according to 
the new order ofdivifions and alliances. 



Previous to the French revolution Europe was in a 
ferene and tranqoil fituation, which may not improperly 
li)e compared to the placid and fmooth furface of that 
great river in North America, which empties the waters 
of the immenfe fuperior lakes into the inferior lake On- 
tario, before that prodigious mafs of water which it con- 
tains precipitates itfelf over the huge rocks of Niagara, 
The fame mafs of water which beiore moved on ferene 
and flow, after the fudden and tremendous fall, boils up 
and eddies in a thoufand directions, changing at every 
inftant with irregular impetuofity, until diiFance of fpace 
and length of time again reAore to the difturbed eleoieoC 
its natural calm and regular movement. 

We have reprefentcd the river previous to its fall ; wf 
are now at the bottom of the catara(£l, and it remains for 
us cither to take a view of it in its prefent turbulent fitur 
ation, or to defift until the lapfe of time and a fucceffion 
of events fhall again have reftored order and tranquillity^ 

The fituation of Europe is too important to let all 
pafs on unnoticed, until a day, certainly not very near at 
hand, and probably at a confiderable didance, fhall arrive* 
when a permanent and folid peace may be eiiabliifaed. It 
IS perhaps not going too far to fay, that much utility and 
real advantage may arife from reprefenting the llate of the 
governments of Europe as they will be, fuppofing the 
treaty already entered into between France and Auftria 
to take place, and be realized in a durable manner. 
. We mean to fay, that a reprefent9tion made put before 
matters be finally ^fettled, maycoinpenfate for what it 

D wants 



'^2^ 



'J''.V ji, . 



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C so 1 

wants in durability by the light it may throw on aflairs 
afiually under agitation, and which, ere they acquire, 
feliditv, will require the guarantee of other powers 
befides France and Auflria, however great and coloflal 
the former of thofe may be. 

On the continent oi" Europe the fyftem kept up fo 
long and with fuch care under the name of balance of 
power, is entirely done away. Of the fourteen nations, 
exhibited in the i ft chart, Poland has difappeared ; his 
Sardinian majefty's continental dominions are equally 
obliterated ; and Holland, Naples, Switzerland, Venice, 
and many fmall and hitherto independent ftates, are 
reduced to a fituation not only of dependence, but of 
abfolute fubmiffion. 

The fituation of Spain is not much more independent 
than that of Holland ; but as it poflefles the phyfical 
means of taking back what it has loft, and as it has 
neither internally nor in its foreign poffcflions fufFered 
equal loffes ; and farther ftill, as neither the form of 
government nor manners of the people have fufFered 
any violent revolution, that kingdom has ftill fome right 
to be numbered amongft nations. 

On a furvey of Europe in its prefent or aftual ftate, 
thc^oft intereftine fituation exhibited is that of the 
German empire ; for in the firft place it is diminiihed in 
extent ; it is in the next place, fo fituated politically, 
that all its internal unanimity is deftroyed from the 
ncceflary and natural operation of oppofite interefts. 
• That empire may be confidered ns divided into three 

5 arts, Austria, Prussia, and Other German 
^RiNC£s,which make three bodies with different or rather 
oppofite intereils. Toilluftrate this, the circles A, B, and 
C, are drawn interfering each other. (See plate 2.) 
The circle A, reprefents the German empire as it now 
is in its full extent. B, reprefents the dominions of the 
emperor, and C, the dominions of Pruffia. The red part 
{hews how much of the empire belongs to the houfe of 
Auftria ; the yellow portion reprefents what belongs to 
FruiSa, and confcquemly the green, which is all that 
remains to the other princes^ is what may alone truly be 

German 



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hEIART^4 
IONGD 



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f tallecl the German empire; as thofe princes * have no 

' other preponderating interest^ and . no means of defending 
their rights hut that which their German dominions con- 
fer, it is very probahle that the indemnities promifed to 
thofe pnnccs, who have for the mean time loft every 
thing* will be taken from the principalities which are 

' unproteded. 

The aggranditcment of the French and Auftrian govern- 

' nents, and the ftate of impotence to which the German 
princes and the Italian flares have been reduced, are fo 
evident from the chart before us, that it is unneceflary to 
noake any. remarks; and though we may be inclined to 
4oubt the permanence of the prcfent arrangement, it 
feemsimpoffible that the old fyftem can ever be re-efta- 
bli(hed. 

Having already made fome ohfervations on the knper- 
fe£lion of flatiiticai knowledge, both as to our almoft 
total ignorance in fome cafes, and our inaccuracy in 
many, it has heen thought profier to add the following 
lift, which, when filled up, together with the articles 
contained under the heaid of Britain, would make a 
tolerably complete ftatiftical account of a country, m 
eolleding which, we muft again take ihe liberty to fayt 
that individuals, unaffifted by the refpe£livegoverninents» 
never can fucceed ; with their ai&ftance) it will be very 
caiily accomplilhed* 

1. Average rent of land. 

2. Average price of wages of common labour. 

3. Ditto, ditto, carpenters, fmiths> &c. 

4. Pay of foidiers. 

5. Price of bread, average. 
o. Butchers meat. 

7. Revenue ofiicers, number of. 

8. Average number of poor. 

9. Expence of poor. 
XO. Lawyers, number of. 

* The imall portions of Gcrnany that ))elong to the Vrngs of Zaglandy 
Sweden, and Denmark, are certainly under foreign influence, but they are 
aoc (oAciently extenfive to xncrit notice in the chart. 

Da II. Number 



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[ 5« 3 

•J I. Number of clprgyandaQiQuntQf their r^yeimpt. 
I % . Les^ues of inland navigaiion^ 

13. Number of horfes. . 

14. CriminfiUexecuM, 

15. Ditto tranfportcd, 

16. Ditto imprifoned) tried, &c. 

17. Ditto acquitted. 

J 8. Current coin ia circulation, ampuat of, 

19. Number of banks. 

$0. Paper circulation, eftiniate of, 

^1. Grain exported.-,,^ 

22* Ditto imported, j » 

23* Number of perfons imprifoned for debt, average^ 

24. Average ipcome or expence of each individuai- 

25, Total quantity of corn confumed. 
^6. Quantity of work done by maqlwnery. 

^7- Quantity of power of fire engines, meafured 

by the ftrength of horfe$. 
Ij8. Price of travelling poft with two horfes. 
29. Number oifbankruptpes. 

Kpte. The pate red circle round France, ihews the extent 
of that oonntry, together with thcfe under th« autho- 
4rity of Its prelent rul^s. 



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7 



'AN: 



i 



Scitiili. 
erritoric* 





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[ 53 ]\ 
STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 

MINDOOSTAN. 

I f ' ' I ■ . =ae 

This intetefting portion of the globe is comprehended 
Wtween the 70th and the oOth degrees of eaft longitudcJi 
and the 8th and 35th of north latitude. Its general 
botindariet are^ to the n6rth» the kingdom of Thibet; 
from which it ia feparated by the mountains of Hindod 
Khoo ; on the ibuth, by the great Indian ec^ah ; on thd 
caft, by the Burrampooter rivef and the bay of Bengal i 
and on the weft, by the Indus, Perfiai and the Arabiaii 
gulph. 

The population of HindoOft&n is nbt fo c6nfiderabl£ 
•8 might be expeAed ; but it irtuft b^ confidered that 
although Britifh India is extreifl<§ly popubus; there ait 
other countries very thinly inhabited. 

The revenues ot Hindooftan have, fince the reign df 
Aurengzebe, who died in 7707^ been on the decline. The 
provinces of Bengal and Bahar have^ it i^ true, uiidef 
the prudent admitiiftration of 6ur late Governors-general 
of India, experienced a contrary efie£L Britifh India b^ 
ihe continuance of the fame falutary meafures undet 
the prefent adminiftratbn, i$ daily acquiring an increaft 
of population and revenue. 

The fituation of Hindooftan is adriiirably fuited foi- 
commerce, both inland and maritime. Its extent of fea- 
coaft gives it almoft all the advantages of an ifland, efpe^ 
d^Uy thepeninfula, and the produce of Hindooftan Proper 
18 conveyed to the ports on the gulf of Arabia, and the 
bay of Bengal, by the Indus, the Ganges, and the Bar- 
ram pooter. 

The inland commerce of Hindooftan is carried on by 

the means of caravans with Bootan, Thibet, Siam, Tar- 

D3 tary, 



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54 HINDOOSTAW. 

tary, and Perfia. Although gold and filvcr arc not the 
produce of Hindooftan, fiill immenfe quantities of the 
precious metals are yearly imported, both by land and 
ica, in exchange for its valuable and neceffary articles. 

It is worthy of remark, that 700 league^ of fea-coaft, 
out of the I2CO which encircle the whole of Hindooftan, 
and of the navigation of the principal rivers, the Ganges, 
the Barrarapooter, the Killnah, the Tappee, and the 
Coleroon, which flow through the Briti(h dominions in 
India, arefubjedt to her power. This advantage, together 
tvith the command of the principal pafTes into the interior 
of Hindooftan, givies evident fuperiority to Britifh com* 
merce in that quarter. It is much to be regretted that 
Britifli capital is not wholly employed in this lucrative 
branch of commerce, and that foreigners are permitted to 
carry oflF four-fifths of the whole *. By extending the 
capital of the company,, or by the introduftion of the 
capital of other merchants of this country, fubjedl to fuch 
rules and regulations which the Eaft India. company, by 
their exclufive charter, have a right to impofe, this cir- 
cumilance, might in a great meafure, be avoided. Tlie 
exports of India are computed at feven milUons ; it is 
certainly more, and capable of being carried to a much 
greater extent. India enjoys a diredl trade with Perfia, 
Arabia, the coaft of Africa, China, the iflands of Sumatra 
and Java, the Moluccas, the Philippine iflands, the coafls 
of Ava, Pegu, and Siam. 

The productions of Hindooftan are rice, cotton, nitres 
indigo, fugar cane, tobacco, pepper, fandal wood, cin- 
namon of the baftard kind, cardamums, cocoa nuts, coir, 
hemp, teak wood for fhip-building, and black wood, ex* 
cellent in the conftrudion of houfehold furniture, with 
a variety of other woods; diamonds, pearl, rubies, corne- 
lians, raw filk, barilla, drugs in great variety; wheat, 
barley, gram, and many diflferent lunds of other grains. 

India produces hoi fes, but none equal to thofe of Arabia 
<and Perfia ; they are fmall and hardy. Great exertions are 
now making by the civil and military (ervants of th^ 

^ Mr* Dvndas in the Houfe of Coramont* 

oompany 



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aiNDoo^TAH. 55 

company to improve the breed of this ufeful animal. 
There are alfo black cattle, flieep, elephants, camels, 
ravenous animals, fuch as tigers, wolves, bears, &c;. 
Deers and antelopes in a great variety, wild hcxp, hares, 
partridges, fnipes, wild ducks, and all forts ofdomeftic 
fowls. 

The manufadu res of Hindooftan are chiefly thofeof* 
cotton and filk ; from the firft they derive the moft beau- 
tiful muflins in the world, with the greateft variety of 
cotton cloths of all defcriptions. They alfo manufaaure 
iaitpetre, rum, fugar, arrack, indigo, and fait. The natives 
work curioufly in gold and Giver, and they embroider 
on the fineft muflin, and on cloth, to admiration. They 
are good mechanics, and expert fhip-builders. 

In a country enjoying the benign effcds of a falubrious 
climate, where little cloathing is neceflTary, the inhabit- 
ants fimple in their manners, and whofe modes of life 
are abftemious in the extreme, are enabled to produce 
articles, both of neceffity and luxury, at a price fo mo- 
derate, ns to enable thole who poflefs the commerce of 
Hindooflah to underfell every market in the world. 
The price of labour does not exceed fixpence a day, and 
the artizan may poffibly earn a third more tlian that 
fum. 

Land produces to the ftatie from ninepence half- 
penny to one fliilling ahd nine-pence farthing per acre, 
whilit the fliare to the cultivator is lefs than one third 
of the a£tual produce. It is not fo much amongft the 
native powers, the governments or the rulers of Hin-' 
dooftan, as the 2emendaurs and their dependents, the 
cutwal, or judge, and the colle£tors of the duties and 
cuiloms, who opprefs the unfortunate natives of Hin* 
dooQan. 



D4 

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STATISTICAL TABLE OJf 

HINDOOSTAK. 

Extent of Hindoodan ia fquare miles .,•••• 1,024,800 

Number of inhabitants , 77»98o,8l8 

Number of perfpps to a fquare mile, in different pro- 
vinces 62. 8o, ] i^. 125 

Number of Englifh acre? 6^5,872,000 

Number of acres to each perfon about • 8| 

Revenue in pounds fterllng . , » 3P,00Q,00O 

Commercial exports, about , . 7,000,000 

Imports •••••• 3,0009090 

Extent of fea-coaft in leagues, about • • . . . i,20Q 

I*eninfula of India in fquare miles. . . . • • iSy^qi J, 

Extent of the Merhatta empire in f<^uare miles 457, 144 
Britifli pofleffions^. ^ ♦ ., • . ^ . ... 217,185 ' 

tritifh allies .*,,...•..,.,..,. fi^^6i . 
ritifli interefts ia India in fquare miles . . . . • 452,65a. 
Number of inhabitants in ditto •••..•••• .41,002,890^ 
Revenue of ditto •....••.•. .^. ,.,,.•.». . i5,4S9,opo 

Nizam's territories ..,•.••,••. 103,690. 

^evqnues in pound? fterlipg ,..•.. 2,600,000 

Military ftrength, cavalry 40,0^0 infantry 30,000 70,000 
l!>ominions of the fete Tipppq Sijltan before the partition 

in 1 79p^ in fqjaare ipiks •*••*•• •\, « 08,000 

I^cvenue • , , ••.....•• 2,380^000 

Dominions of Tippoo after thci partition in 1792 in 

" fquare miles, » . . • 62,00Q^ 

Revenue 1,425,000 

Divifion of the empire of Myfore in fquare miles, to the 

Britifh about • * • • • 32,060 

To the Raja of Myfore a6,oco 

To the Merhattas 13,000 

To the Nizam 26,000 

Revenue of the Mogul empire in the reign of Aurung- 

2ebe • . . 32,000,000 

Extent 



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RIRboOSTAlt* 57 

Extent of ditto hr fquare miles • 827,415 

Diftri(^ of Delhi, the prefent Mogul empire, about 

fquare miles * • i,6oo 

Poputatfon of the Merhatta empire 28,342,928 ' 

Revenue of the Merhatta empire including the 

Chout 16,000,00a 

Military ftrcngth of ditto, cavalry 210,000, infantry 

64,000, total 274,000 

Revenues of the Poona Merhattas in pounds 

' fterling 4,000,000 

Extent of territory in fquare miles • . . . . 152,381 

Military (Irength 60,000 

Revenues of Dowlut Row Scindeah in pounds fter- 

. ling , 6,oco,ooo 

Military ftrength, 60,000 cavalry, 30,000 infantry 90,000 
Revenues of the Bouncila in pounds fterling 3,500,00a 
Military ftrcngth of ditto, 50,000 cavalry, 10,000 in- 
fantry 6o,cco 

Revenues of Holkar in pounds fterling 1,500,000 

Military ftrength of ditto, 30,000 cavalry, 4000 in- 
fantry 349O00 

Revenues of Guyacquar in pounds fterling • . 1,000,00a 

Military ftrength, {cavalry) 30,000 

Revenues of the Seicks i>45794oa- 

Military ftrength (principally cavalry) ioo,coo 

Extent of the territory of the §eicks in fquare miles 89,90a 
Extent of Zemaun ohaw's dominions in fquare 

miles • 320,000 

Population. . • io,ooo,ooa 

Revenue 0,000,000 

Population of the independent ftates including the dif- 

trifts of Goa, Cafhmere, &c i, 888,00a 

Extent of ditto in fquare miles « 23,600 



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t 58 ] 
STATISTICAL TABLE Ot 

BRITISH INDIA. 

f' l I ' II 11^. " -n - 

Aftual pofTeflions in fquare miles. 
Bengal> Bahar, Orifla, and Benares 162,256 

Circars /. 1 7,508 

Coimbetorc 10, 150 \ Part of 

Barramahal . . « « . 7,400 /the late 

Sdalabar and Coorg 6,600 > kingdom 

Cftnara and part of Soonda 6,235 1 ^^ 

Dindegul 2,600 JMyforc. 

Taghire in the Carnatic .... * * . 2,436 

liLinds of Bombay and Salfette 2,Coo 

217*185 

Allies and Tributaries. 

Nizam 103,690 

Oude * 52,880 

Carnatic, Tanjore, &c 44*^97 

M\ fore ., 35»250 

Cochin and Travencore • ^ 9»35^ 

^ ^3SA67 

Total of the Britifh interefts in India in fquare 

miles 45^y6^^ 

Total number of inhabitants in ditto 41,062,890 

Kevenues of ditto, about . . « 19,000,000 

Number of inhabitants in Britifh India .... 23,057,300 

Average number of people to a (quare mile • • 105 

Population. 

Bengal, Bahar, Orifla, and Benares 18,497,184 

Circars, Coimbctore, Barramahal, and Din- 

degul 2,636,060 

Malabar and Coorg 825,000 

Canara and part of Soonda 7^9,066 

Jaghire* 170,000 

Jflands of Bombay and Salfette ••••... 180,000 

•Nizam ».. .. 6,428,780 

Oude 5,288,800 

Carnatic 3»543»7^ 

* In this calculation, the population of the black town of Madras is not 
included ; neither is that of Seringapatam, now a BritiA garrifon, nor 
Hadias, included ia the total number of iuhabiiantt in Bhtiih India* 

Myfore 



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♦ I 



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BRITISH IMDIA. 59 

Myrore US^S'S^^^ 

Cochin and Travencore i ,168,75a 

Revenue of BritiQi India in pounds (lerling < . 9,742,937 

Charges • 8,961,180 

Net revenue 7^''757 

CoQopany's Imports from India annually, to thi:. amount 

of, in pounds (lerling, about 2,000,000 

Debt of the company 14,000,000 

Intereft of debt paid by the company ^78,855 

Intcrcft of money, variable from 6 to 12 per cent. 

Extent of Bengal in fquare miles « « . • 97,244 

Extent of Baliar, iiritiih Orifla, and Benares . • • 65,011 
Revenue of Bengal, Bahar,Oriira, & Benares, 6,504,738 

Charges 4»33^»99' 

Number of inhabitants in Bengal i i/x>c,oco 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 114 

Number of Engliih acres in Bengal 621236, 160 

Number a£ acres to each peribn 5|- 

Revenue of Oude 2,500,000 

Revenue of the prefidency of Fort St. George 2,822,536 

Charges 3'^32»9i9 

Revenue of the Circars 430,000 

In 1796 Bengal exported to the value of ... • 3,778,704 

Same year imported • » • •. 1,563,200 

In 1796 Fort St. George exported to the value of 802,457 

Same year imported 381,568 

Revenue of Bombay 41 59663 

Charges 1,495,270 

Number of fquare acres on the iflands of Bombay and 

Salfette •• , 1,280,000 

Number of perfons to a fquare mile 90 

Number of acres to each perfon 7 

In 1796 Bombay imported to thevalue of .... 245,537 

In the fame year exported I43»92S 

Extent of territory obtained from Tippoo in 1792 in 

fquare miles including Coorg . .^ 16,600 

Revenue obtained per annum 395»ooo 

Extent of territory obtained in 1799 in fquare miles 16,385 
Revenue obtainecl ♦ • • 539>0S^ 

* iBlSilf Is Included feven lacs of pagodas^ or j^.28o,oco llerliog, ftipin- 
Uted to be paid by ihe Rajah vf Myion to the company* 

Total 



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TO' BllTTIStt INDIA. 

Total territory obtained * 32,985 

Total revenue ditto **...< 934»<^56 

Elctent of fcacoaft in leagues, about 700 

Courfe of navigable rivers in Bengal m Britrfli miles 1,64a 

Extent of feacoaft to ditto in leagues 13O 

Nunnber of perfoiisto a fquare mile in Malabar, Cochin, 

and Travancore 125 . 

Total number of inhabitants * i . ; ^ 2,coO,000 

Total number of (quare miles ^5»9S^ 

Eaft India Company's Land Forces, including the King's: ■ 
troops (erving in India. 

Regiments of European cavalry, four 2,400 

• • of native dltto^ nine ,^ 59400 

of European infantry, twenty-four • . 24,000 

of native ditto, forty-two ; . . , . 84,000 

Battalions of artillery, fix • 3)000- 

Corps of engineers, pioneers, &c. # . . 500 

Total, independent of irregulars ♦ 119,300 

Number of Europeans refiding in India under the pro* 
tedtion of the Company not in their fervicc .-. 1,707 

Civil fervants.of the. company ..•••.. < 4 r. 2,814 

Military officers, including furgeons <.. • 2,869 

Naval officers at Bombay ... ^ «...••• 113 

Company's Marine. 
Ships 4, fnpws 3, k^tchies 4« brigs 2, fchooners 2,befides 

cutters, packets, 6cq. 
Total number of Britifh in India, fubjedl to the control 

of the Eaft India Company • • 359O03 

I'rice of labour in tiindooftan, equal to one-fourth of th^ 

price of labour in Great Britain, via. 
A common labourer per month of 30 days, calculating^ 
. the rupee at two and iixpcncc, \ 2s* 
A perfon.who carries burthens i^s« 
A bricklayer 18s. gel. 
A mafon i8s. gd. 
A Blackfinith 22s. 6d. 
A carpenter 32s. 6d. 
A native ibldier's pdy 20s, 



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[ 6i 3 



Haviwg now reprefented, with as imich accuracy n 
the prooft and documents yet colle6led will admit, the 
Aate of the population, revenues, dec. of different coun- 
tries, but more particularly thofe of Britain and Britifli 
India, a few obfervations on the latter may not be con* 
iidered as improper. 

Our Britifli po0effions in India, unlike any other 
foreign territory belonging to us, are not direftly fuhjedl 
to the government of this country, but arc regulated as it 
were at fecond-hand, by the inieVvention of the Court of 
Diredors, who are controuled by a Board of Commiffion 
for regulating the afFaTrs ^f4ndia, and in fome inftances 
fubjea alfoto the revifion of a General Court of Pro. 
prietors. Thus fettered the Diredlorsdifpatch their order* 
£br the government of a country at a diftance of eight 
thouiand miks, of which the extent and population are 
double thofe of Great Britain, and producing more^rw 
rszwiue than the Britifh government poffeffes after the 
intereft of its debt is paid *. 

This fuh}e£^ is very intricate, and has of late occupied 
the minds of many able men. To enter into details here 
would be abfurd ; but we may take a view of the refult. 

India cofts this nation a great deal, and has been the 
caufe of nuich envy towards this country, the burthens 
t>n which have become enormous; not by lavifh expcndi^ 
lure in time of peace, but by the expences occ»fioned by 
repeated ware : and it would appear fair, that while the 
mother country dedicates three fourths of its revenue to 
the payment of intereft, India (hou Id contribute fome* 
thing ; and that the expences of the eftablifhments there 
ihould not be allowed to keep pace with, and abforb nearly 
the whole of the rcv^nistc^ ootle&eA. 

. * T]^ fiQK^WMime oi Bxitaiia does not amouAt to finren millioot after 
the intereft of IM debt if' paid. That of the Indian territoFy pa^ cighS 
miiUoof afttr the istereft of fourteen inilUons is discharged. 

The 



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[ 6» 1 

The wages of labour are not indeed an exadl criterion 
by which the value of money may be edimated ; but all 
writers on political economy and finance allow them 
to be one of the bed ; and as wages are only about 
one-fourth in that country of what they are in this> it 
follows, that nine millions there muft be a very enor- 
mous revenue. It is true that a number of individuals 
are, and muft be, largely paid there ; but in that, as in 
every government on the face of the earth, the far greater 
portion of the expenditure goes for the payment of fubor* 
dinate perfons, fuch as foldiers, and thofe whofe pay is 
proportioned to the expence of their exigence, the main* 
tenance of horfes, purchafe of llores, &c. 

The princes of the country maintain fplendid courts, 
yet they amafs wealth ; but without any fuch royal ftate 
to maintain, the company have great debts and notreafure* 
Such is the a6tual refult, concerning the caufes of which 
it would be well deferving the attention of thofe who are 
in power to inquire. 

The commerce with the Eaft, which is likewife the 
envy of all nations, and which, from the earlied period, 
has brought enemies upon every country that pofieiTed 
it, is at prefent under aUrange predicament. Our India 
Company appear to monopolize the whole of it ; but in 
reality, luch laws have been made to proteS ihe com* 
pany, that four fifths of it is eftimated as bani(hed, and 
in the hands of (Irangers, fo that we who feem to engrois 
all, have in hO. only a very inferior portion. 

On this important fuhjedi, however^ there exift 
opinions in tiieir nature diametrically oppofite. By one 
party it is maintained, that any abbreviation of the com* 
pany's exclufive charter would endanger its exigence ; 
while the advocates for a free trade, with equal confi* 
dence aiTert, that not only its welfare asacorporate body, 
but the profperity of British India, the public revenue, and 
commercial intcrefls of this country, would, by a fair 
participation, be greatly augmented. Certain it is, that, 
until the expiration of the charter, no arrangement, 
without the confent of the company tbemfelves, can 
poilibly be formed. 

As 



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[ 63 ] 

As fome eftabliflimcnt, fimilar to that of the preTent 
company, muft always be neceflary to cx>ndud the afiairt 
of India, to prevent the deleterious effeSt of unbounded 

Btronage, it is fincerely to be wi(hed, that the Court of 
ireflors and the Board of Controul could devife fome 
conciliatory mode by which that part of the commerce 
which they cannot embrace may be conceded. At prefent, 
the furplus trade of India fn\ds its way into other coun- 
tries, from the Britiih merchants being in a manner ex- 
cluded from fendine home, in {hips built in India, the 
valuable produce and manufafiures of that countiy. 



On the lO/A of Auguft i8oi, wll be puUi/hed^ 

By y, fFJLLISy Patemofter-Row^ 

THE COMMERCIAL AND POLITICAL ATLAS^ 

SHBWINO THS 

Trade and Revenues of Great Britain for the whole of 
the laft Century, 

ILLUSTAATBD BY STAIUBD COPPBB PLATB CHABTS.. 

By WILLIAM PLAYFAIR. 

This work is printed cf aiize to bind vp with the prefent, 
and both will be fpund an agreeable and neceHaiy 
companion £or an academy or counting houfe. 



ADVE&- 



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[ 64 ] 
ADVERTISEMENT. 

In the courfc of conftrufting thofc charts, it occurred 
that the beft mode of making a ftatiftical and agricul- 
tural furvey of England, would be to take each county 
fcparately by itfelf, and reprefcnt the eftates of all tfie 
proprietors who poflefs more than one hundred acres 
of land, by a fquare of a proportional fize, following 
each other in the order of their extent. The culti- 
^ted lands, foreft lands, and wade lands, would be dif- 
tinguiflied by a difference in the colouring. The nanie 
of the proprietor, number of houfes, perfons, cattle, &c. 
i-wcNild be marked on each eftatc of more than 300 
fquare acres ; the contents of a chart would be as under, 
with TctpeSt to manner : 

SUPPOSED STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF THE COUNTY 
OF BEDFORD. 

Total extent of the county, 617,000 fquare acres. 

a Eftates above 20,oco acres each ......••• 52,000 

3 Ditto above 10,000 and below 20,000 • • 48,060 
7 Ditto above 5,000 and under 10,000 • • • • 50,000 

10 Ditto above 4j0O0 and under 5,000 43,000 

9,6 Ditto above 3,000 and under 4,000 • • . • 80,000 

50 Ditto above 2,coo and under 3,000 60,000 

, 150 Ditto above 1,000 and under 2,000 . . . • ioo,Oco 

- 100 Ditto above 500 and under 1,000 .••••• 56,000 

250 Ditto above lOO and under. 500 •«.••««. . ao^jooo 

Wafie lands, roads, dec 50,000 



617,000 

With appropriate explanation, care, and accuracy, a 
true ftatiftical account of England might in this manner 
be obtained, and that at no very great expencc. The 
author has at this time an intention of publiihing a propo- 
fal for this purpofe, and for one county only ; in which 
cafe a fubfcription will be neceffary, and that lodged in the 
hands of a banking houfe till the delivery of the work. 

London, 30th July 1801. 

T. Bcnsley, Prinler, B»lt Court, Fleet Street. 



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SCOTT (Sib Gilbert). Lectures on the Rise and Development 
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